Image courtesy Goody, Clancy & Associates

Mixed-Income Project (MIP)

Mixed-income housing is a major policy paradigm in the U.S., but research evaluating its sources and consequences is relatively sparse. The evidence that does exist has produced conflicting results, and much of the writing about mixed-income neighborhoods, and income inequality more generally, is normative rather than analytic. Moreover, whereas proportionately few people live in planned mixed-income housing developments, mixed-income neighborhoods that are organic or “naturally occurring” are relatively more common, and yet we do not know much about their course of development—whether for individuals or at the neighborhood level.

The “Mixed-Income Project” addresses this gap in knowledge by advancing a new, more “holistic” view of the individual and aggregate dynamics of mixed-income housing.  Funded by the John T. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the project is led by Principal Investigators Robert J. Sampson (Harvard) and Robert D. Mare (UCLA).  The major innovation of the study was to design and collect original data on the life-course experiences of individuals living in mixed-income neighborhoods, especially naturally occurring mixed-income areas.  We selected Chicago and Los Angeles as the two data collection sites in order to draw on a rich set of preexisting longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods and the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study. Over the course of three years, ending in 2013, the Mixed-Income Project (or MIP) completed re-interview surveys based on a multi-level, longitudinal study of a representative sample of over 1,000 individuals originally living in Chicago and over 1,000 individuals originally living in Los Angeles. These data were combined with twenty-five years of census data on all neighborhoods (circa 65,000) in the U.S. 

The new MIP data were the subject of recent presentations at the Stockholm Criminology Symposium in Stockholm, Sweden, the International Network of Analytical Sociologists in Mannheim, Germany, The Straus Institute for the Advanced Study of Law and Justice in New York, NY,  the American Educational Research Association in Philadelphia, PA., the WZB Center for Social Science in Berlin, Utrecht University, and the European Commission.   Analyses are ongoing, and papers will be posted on this site as they become available. 

Selected papers:

Sampson, Robert J., Jared Schachner, and Robert D. Mare. 2017. “Urban Income Inequality and the Great Recession in Sunbelt Form: Disentangling Individual and Neighborhood-Level Change in Los Angeles.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 3: 102-128.

Sampson, Robert J.  2016. "Individual and Community Economic Mobility in the Great Recession Era: The Spatial Foundations of Persistent Inequality".  Pp. 261-287 in Economic Mobility: Research and Ideas on Strengthening Families, Communities and the Economy.  St. Louis, MO: Federal Reserve Bank .

Sampson, Robert J., Robert D. Mare, and Kristin L. Perkins.  2015.  Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 660: 156-174.

Perkins, Kristin L. and Robert J. Sampson. 2015. Compounded Deprivation in the Transition to Adulthood: The Intersection of Racial and Economic Inequality among Chicagoans, 1995-2013RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 1:35–54.